Taddeo Bragg posted an update 4 months, 2 weeks ago
Ofcause-specific hospitalization as visual impairment. Patients with visual impairment significantly order BAPTA increased in both cardiovascular and infection-related hospitalization rates compared with patients without visual impairment (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, by the log-rank test). The univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses for cardiovascular and infection-related hospitalization before and after propensity score matching are shown in Table 6. In the crude model of unmatched data, the HR for cardiovascular hospitalization of patients with visual impairment was 1.70 (95 CI, 1.35?.15, P < 0.001) using patients without visual impairment as the reference category. In the multivariable analysis, patients with visual impairment had an independently significant association with increased cardiovascular hospitalization compared with patients without visual impairment in model 1 (HR 1.57, 95 CI, 1.29?.91, P < 0.001) and modelTABLE 3. Causes of Deaths of the Study Population According to Visual Impairment No VI (n ?2520) All cause of death (n, ) Cardiovascular disease including cerebrovascular disease (n, ) Infection-related disease (n, ) Others (n, )VI ?visual impairment.VI (n ?730) 105 38 30 35 (14.4) (36.9) (29.1) (34.0)Total (n ?3250) 293 106 77 106 (9.0) (36.7) (26.6) (36.7)P <0.001 0.188 68 47(7.5) (36.6) (25.3) (38.2)Copyright#2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.www.md-journal.com |Hong et alMedicineVolume 95, Number 19, May95 CI, 1.08?.02, P ?0.001) even after adjustment for confounding clinical and laboratory variables including age and sex, DM, cardiovascular disease, health insurance, education, duration of dialysis, the use of ACEi or ARB, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram, serum creatinine, serum albumin and HbA1c. Patients with visual impairment had also a higher risk for infection-related hospitalization compared with patients without visual impairment in crude model (HR 1.85, 95 CI, 1.48?2.33, P < 0.001) and model 1 (HR 1.77, 95 CI, 1.40?.22, P < 0.001) before propensity score matching. However, patients with visual impairment did not have a higher risk for infectionrelated hospitalization than patients without visual impairment in the multivariable analysis of unmatched data and the univariable and multivariable analysis of matched data.DISCUSSIONIn this multicenter prospective observational study, we demonstrated that visual impairment was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality even after adjusting for confounding variables in HD patients in unmatched cohort as well as propensity score-matched cohort. Furthermore, visual impairment had a significant increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalization, whereas visual impairment was not independently associated with a risk factor of infectionrelated hospitalization in HD patients. These findings of visual impairment as an independent risk factor for mortality are compatible with previous studies in the general population.7,11?3 To the best of our knowledge, there has been no multicenter prospective cohort study for visual impairment in HD patients. The strength of our study is the first study investigating the association of visual impairment and clinical outcomes in ESRD patients undergoing HD treatment. We found a significant association between visual impairment and age, co-morbidities such as DM and cardiovascular disease and sociodemographic status such as health insurance and education in HD pati.